Major General Samuel D. Lucas marched the state militia to Far West and laid siege to the Mormon headquarters. It is the order of the Governor that you should all be exterminated; and by God you will be. ", "Missouri's 1838 Extermination Order and the Mormons' Forced Removal to Illinois", Casus Belli: Ten Factors That Contributed to the Outbreak of the 1838 'Mormon War' in Missouri, Sidney Rigdon: A Portrait of Religious Excess, Mel Tungate's Battle of Crooked River sources website, History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Volume 2 Chapter 11, Length of U.S. participation in major wars,, Religiously motivated violence in the United States, Articles with dead external links from August 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with dead external links from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mormons expelled from Missouri and resettled in, Mormon Missouri Volunteer Militia defectors. Among the hundreds of names attached to the document were: [53][56] Millport, Grindstone Fork and the smaller Missourian settlement of Splawn's Ridge were also plundered and had some houses burned. There was scarcely a Missourian's home left standing in the county. The religious persecution towards Mormons in Missouri was so bad it was even called the "Mormon War". [104], It is also believed that Smith's imprisonment had become an embarrassment, and that an escape would be convenient for Boggs and the rest of the Missouri political establishment. In 1839, a beleaguered, exiled group known as the Church of Latter Day Saints of Jesus Christ—also known as the Mormons—crossed the Missouri border into Jackson County, Illinois. Shortly after what Mormons consider to be the restoration of the gospel in 1830, Smith stated that he had received a revelation that the Second Coming of Christ was near, that the City of Zion would be near the town of Independence in Jackson County, Missouri, and that his followers were destined to inherit the land held by the current settlers. My brigade shall march for Liberty to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock, and if you execute those men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God! If they choose to remain, we must be content. This is how it was explained in a letter to US Army Colonel R. B. Mason of Ft. Leavenworth: The citizens of Daviess, Carroll, and some other counties have raised mob after mob for the last two months for the purpose of driving a group of mormons from those counties and from the State. The soldiers also turned their horses into our fields of corn.[98][99]. The Missouri Mormons are forced to leave Clay County for the more remote Caldwell and Daviess Counties in the northern part of the state. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints endured much persecution in its early years. Later that day, the Carroll County forces sealed off the town. Although county officials could only legally act within the county, this judge authorized Hinkle to defend Latter-day Saint settlements in neighboring Daviess County.[54]. Speaking in general conference in October 1907, Mormon historian and Seventy B.H. [25] Although his proposal and similar ones by others went down to defeat, Governor Boggs himself saw his once-promising political career destroyed to the point that, by the next election, his own party was reluctant to be associated with him. They also reported the existence of the Danite group among the Mormons and repeated a popular rumor that a group of Danites was planning to attack and burn Richmond and Liberty. [59] According to one witness, "We could stand in our door and see houses burning every night for over two weeks... the Mormons completely gutted Daviess County. Two members of the Far West High Council, George M. Hinkle and John Murdock, were sent to take possession of the town and to begin to colonize it. When his own troops threatened to join the attackers, Parks was forced to withdraw to Daviess County in hopes that the Governor would come to mediate. The whole force will be placed under your command. Nauvoo: The City of Joseph and the martyrdom of the Prophet (1838–1846) The Mormons finally … "Halt!" [35][36], When the Mormons heard a rumor that Judge Adam Black was gathering a mob near Millport, one hundred armed men, including Joseph Smith, surrounded Black's home. For from this hour, we will bear it no more, our rights shall no more be trampled on with impunity. After the court martial, he ordered General Alexander William Doniphan: You will take Joseph Smith and the other prisoners into the public square of Far West and shoot them at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning.[100]. [24] The Missouri legislature deferred discussion of an appeal by Mormon leaders to rescind the decree. [79], Most Mormons gathered to Far West and Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection. Henry Chiles, attorney-at-law [87][88][89], Lucas' terms were severe. [26] After surviving an assassination attempt in 1842, Governor Boggs ultimately emigrated to California, where he died in relative obscurity in the Napa Valley in 1860. [51][52] Although he was sympathetic to the Mormons' plight, Doniphan reminded the Latter-day Saints that the Caldwell County militia could not legally enter Daviess County, and he advised Mormons traveling there to go in small parties and unarmed. The Mormons divided into three columns led by David W. Patten, Charles C. Rich, and James Durphee. [13][102] The court of inquiry began November 12, 1838. “What the Mormons do, ... but Missouri’s extermination order against Mormons in the mid-19th century was not. Brother David Evans made a treaty with the mob that they would not molest us. [13] In Daviess County, where Whigs and Democrats had been roughly evenly balanced, Mormon population reached a level where they could determine election results.[22]. Stripped of their property, the Mormons were then given a few months to leave the state. The period of Mormon settlement in and their ultimate expulsion from Missouri figures as one of the most tragic periods in the history both of Mormonism and America. Mormon dissenters from Daviess County who had fled to Livingston County reportedly told Livingston County militia under Colonel Thomas Jennings that Mormons were gathering at Haun's Mill to mount a raid into Livingston County. An extreme example that clearly portrays that title says, " For 137 years, it was technically legal to kill a Mormon in Missouri. [108] Mormon residents were harassed and attacked by angry residents who were no longer restrained by militia officers. This is a movie we made for National History Day in the 8th grade. [65], Local citizens were outraged by the actions of the Danites and other Mormon bands. Rumor reached Far West that a Militia unit from Ray County had taken Mormons prisoner and an armed party was quickly assembled to rescue these prisoners and push the Militia out of the county. Slavery has long been cited as the primary cause for the persecutions, but German immigrants, who were much more vocally against slavery than the Saints, were not targeted. On August 6, 1838, the war began following a brawl at an election in Gallatin, resulting in increased organized violence between Mormons and non-Mormons backed by the Missouri Volunteer Militia in northwestern Missouri. They openly blaspheme the Most High God, and cast contempt on His holy religion, by pretending to receive revelations direct from heaven, by pretending to speak unknown tongues, by direct inspiration, and by diverse pretenses derogatory to God and religion, and to the utter subversion of human reason. The tension … [82] Other members of the mob opened fire, which sent the Latter-day Saints fleeing in all directions. Samuel C. Owens, County Clerk We believed them deluded fanatics, or weak and designing knaves, and that they and their pretensions would soon pass away; but in this we were deceived. Dunn, acting under the orders of Doniphan, continued on to Adam-ondi-Ahman. [13][45], Some isolated Mormons in outlying areas also came under attack. You need not expect any mercy, but extermination, for I am determined the governor's orders be executed. Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. The non-Mormon militiaman who died was Moses Rowland, who was killed at Crooked River on 25 October 1838. Executive paralysis permitted terrorism, which forced Mormons to self-defense, which was immediately labeled as an "insurrection", and was put down by the activated militia of the county. Sheriff Morgan was ridden through town on an iron bar, and died shortly afterward from the injuries he suffered during the ride. He had then appointed General John Bullock Clark to lead the State Militia in assisting those citizens to return. We arrived in Caldwell county, near Haun's Mill, nine wagons of us in company. [3][84] When survivors of the massacre reached Far West, the reports of the savagery of the attack played a significant part in the decision of the Mormons to surrender. [37], At a meeting at Lyman Wight's home between leading Mormons and non-Mormons, both sides agreed not to protect anyone who had broken the law and to surrender all offenders to the authorities. [117] Boggs survived, but Mormons came under immediate suspicion especially of the alleged failed assassination attempt by Orrin Porter Rockwell of the Mormon Danites. With one child in each arm, she waded across an icy creek to safety in Adam-ondi-Ahman. But how spacious are appearances. [13] After hearing these reports Governor Boggs chose to act. In 1837, the Twelve Apostles left on missions to England, the first foreign mission of the Mormon Church. While Mormons were viewed as deluded or worse, many Missourians agreed with the sentiment expressed in the Southern Advocate: By what color of propriety a portion of the people of the State, can organize themselves into a body, independent of the civil power, and contravene the general laws of the land by preventing the free enjoyment of the right of citizenship to another portion of the people, we are at a loss to comprehend. Several Mormon homes near Millport were burned and their inhabitants expelled into the snow. McBrier's house was among those burned. Even still, the question of whether anyone was killed as a direct result of the Extermination Order between October 27 (the date of its issuance) and November 1, 1838 (the date of the Latter-day Saint surrender), has been hotly debated among Mormons and historians. Missouri blamed the Mormons for the conflict and forced the Latter-day Saints to sign over all their lands in order to pay for the state militia muster. These documents provide a detailed account of Mormon persecution in Missouri as recorded by those who suffered through the experience. Lyman Wight took his army and attacked Millport. Previously, Governor Boggs had received word that Mormons had driven several citizens of Daviess County (north of Caldwell) from their homes. Finding 10-year-old Sardius Smith hiding behind the bellows, William Reynolds of Livingston County shot and killed the boy, saying: "Nits will make lice, and if he had lived he would have become a Mormon"[79], In all, 17 Latter Day Saints were killed in what came to be called the Haun's Mill Massacre. On October 11, Mormon leaders agreed to abandon the settlement and move to Caldwell County. [13], Meanwhile, a group of non-Mormons from Clinton, Platte, and other counties began to harass Mormons in Daviess County, burning outlying homes and plundering property. They moved into a blacksmith shop, which they hoped to use as a makeshift defensive fortification. =However, the increasing influx of new Mormon converts moving to northwestern Missouri led them to begin settling in adjacent counties. After the inquiry, all but a few of the Mormon prisoners were released, but Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Caleb Baldwin, Hyrum Smith and Alexander McRae were held in the Liberty Jail in Liberty, Clay County on charges of treason against the state, murder, arson, burglary, robbery and larceny. [38], The Mormons also visited Sheriff William Morgan and several other leading Daviess County citizens, also forcing some of them to sign statements disavowing any ties to the vigilance committees. Missouri Executive Order Number 44 reads as follows: Sir: Since the order of this morning to you, directing you to cause four hundred mounted men to be raised within your division, I have received by Amos Reese, Esq., of Ray county, and Wiley C. Williams, Esq., one of my aids [sic], information of the most appalling character, which entirely changes the face of things, and places the Mormons in the attitude of an open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made war upon the people of this state. The short answer to this question is yes, but it’s often not widely known that the state of Missouri is significant to Mormons for several other reasons as well. One historian notes that Governor Boggs was running for election against several violent men, all capable of the deed, and that there was no particular reason to suspect Rockwell of the crime. Russel Hicks, Deputy County Clerk On July 4, 1838, church leader Sidney Rigdon delivered an oration in Far West, the county seat of Caldwell County. In his famous Salt Sermon, Sidney Rigdon announced that the dissenters were as salt that had lost its savor and that it was the duty of the faithful to cast the dissenters out to be trodden beneath the feet of men. POPULAR. Seymour Brunson attacked Grindstone Fork. A committee sent to De Witt ordered the Latter-day Saints to leave. By the fall of that same year these tensions escalated into open conflict, culminating in the looting and burning of several Mormon farms and homes, the sacking and burning of Gallatin by the "Danites", and the taking of hostages by Cpt. When the Missourian raiders approached the settlement on the afternoon of October 30, some 30 to 40 Latter Day Saint families were living or encamped there. [4] All of the conflicts in the Mormon War occurred in a corridor 100 miles (160 km) to the east and northeast of Kansas City. [7][8], Executive Order 44 is often referred to as the "Extermination Order" due to the phrasing used by Governor Boggs. Several children also became ill during the ordeal and died later. It is hard to justify any of the actions taken by the Missourians in order to deal with the Mormons. [19] The firsthand account explains soldiers stated the governor had ordered their expulsion or extermination if they did not leave at once.[19]. [79], None of the Missourians were ever prosecuted for their role in the Haun's Mill Massacre. The temple will largely serve about 25,000 members in the Kansas City area and about 100,000 members in Kansas and Missouri. [75], Meanwhile, exaggerated reports from the Battle of Crooked River made their way to Missouri's governor, Lilburn Boggs. The skirmish is often cited as the first serious violence of the war in Missouri. On the same day, July 20, 1833, the W. W. Phelps printing press, which published the Evening and the Morning Star in Independence, was destroyed by a mob. On June 25, 1976, Governor Kit Bond issued an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, recognizing its legal invalidity and formally apologizing on behalf of the State of Missouri for the suffering it had caused the Mormons.[3]. [97] Brigham Young recounts that, once the militia was disarmed, Lucas's men were turned loose on the city: [T]hey commenced their ravages by plundering the citizens of their bedding, clothing, money, wearing apparel, and every thing of value they could lay their hands upon, and also attempting to violate the chastity of the women in sight of their husbands and friends, under the pretence of hunting for prisoners and arms. On November 1, 1838, Smith surrendered at Far West, the church's headquarters, ending the war. I have just issued orders to Maj. Gen. Willock, of Marion county, to raise five hundred men, and to march them to the northern part of Daviess, and there unite with Gen. Doniphan, of Clay, who has been ordered with five hundred men to proceed to the same point for the purpose of intercepting the retreat of the Mormons to the north. Brig. When McBride held out a hand, Rogers cut it off with a corn knife, then may have further mangled his body while McBride was still alive. The order was issued in the aftermath of the Battle of Crooked River, a clash between Mormons and a unit of the Missouri State Militia in northern Ray County, Missouri, during the 1838 Mormon War. New converts to Mormonism continued to relocate to Missouri and settle in Clay County. [86] Other Latter Day Saint witnesses remembered that Smith said to "beg like a dog for peace". The order was supported by most northwest Missouri citizens but was questioned or denounced by a few. "[60], The Missourians evicted from their homes were no better prepared than the Mormon refugees had been. In witness I have hereunto set my hand and caused to be affixed the great seal of the State of Missouri, in the city of Jefferson, on this 25 day of June, 1976. [57], Thomas B. Marsh, President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the church, and fellow Apostle Orson Hyde were alarmed by the events of the Daviess County expedition. Thomas Pitcher, Deputy Constable On the first night of the march out of Carroll County, two Mormon women died. [2] The Militia and other state authorities—General John B. Clark, among them—used the executive order to violently expel the Mormons from their lands in the state following their capitulation, which in turn led to their forced migration to Nauvoo, Illinois. (Rockwood, Journal, 11 Nov. 1838, CHL.) Tensions rose in Clay County as the Mormon population grew. [35] Reminding Daviess County residents of the growing electoral power of the Mormon community, Peniston made a speech in Gallatin claiming that if the Missourians "suffer such men as these [Mormons] to vote, you will soon lose your suffrage." Mormon leader John Corrill wrote, "the love of pillage grew upon them very fast, for they plundered every kind of property they could get a hold of. Latter-day Saint Albert Perry Rockwood, writing from Far West, estimated on November 11 that about 30 Mormons had been killed. Public opinion has recoiled from a summary and forcible removal of our negro population;—much more likely will it be to revolt at the violent expulsion of two or three thousand souls, who have so many ties to connect them with us in a common brotherhood. Once Latter-day Saints were disarmed, mounted squads visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and destruction of homes to force flight. Unfortunately, the shop had large gaps between the logs which the Missourians shot into and, as one Mormon later recalled, it became more "slaughter-house rather than a shelter". In his book, The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, historian Stephen C. LeSueur notes that “non-Mormon land speculators could not hope to compete with the Mormons, who were purchasing large tracts of land with Church funds,” and that the huge immigration of Mormons to the area also “threatened to displace older towns as the political and commercial centers for their counties” (p.3). Louis Franklin, jailer The Militia broke ranks and fled across the river. Joseph Smith and the other arrested leaders were held overnight under guard in General Lucas' camp, where they were left exposed to the elements. (The Mormon Question, the Taylor-Colfax debate, 1869, p. [25][26], At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County. [88] Smith and the other leaders rode with Hinkle back to the Missouri militia encampment. [26], In late 1975, President Lyman F. Edwards of the Far West stake of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, invited then Missouri Governor Kit Bond to participate in the June 25, 1976, stake's annual conference as a good-will gesture for the United States Bicentennial. [22] Although Governor Boggs belatedly ordered a militia unit under Colonel Sterling Price (later to achieve fame as a Confederate Civil War general) to northern Missouri to stop ongoing depredations against the Mormons, he refused to repeal Order #44. General Parks arrived with the Ray County militia on October 6, but his order to disperse was ignored by the mob. After the stress of being expelled from Millport into the snow, Milford Donaho's wife gave birth prematurely, and the child was severely injured during the birth. Upon his arrival at Far West, General Clark delivered the following speech to the now-captive Mormons, in which he directly invoked Order 44: ...The order of the governor was to me, that you should be exterminated, and not allowed to remain in the state; and had not your leaders been given up, and the terms of this treaty [21] complied with, your families before this time would have been destroyed, and your houses in ashes. [34], At the start of the brawl, Mormon John Butler let out a call, "Oh yes, you Danites, here is a job for us!" Your orders are, therefore, to hasten your operation with all possible speed. [79] One 19th century Missouri historian noted: The Daviess County men were very bitter against the Mormons, and vowed the direst vengeance on the entire sect. Most Mormon immigrants to Missouri (which was at the time a, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 08:25. Spelling in the Manuscripts and Editions, The History of the Text of the Book of Mormon. On Sunday, October 14, a small company of state militia under the command of Colonel William A. Dunn of Clay County arrived in Far West. [66] On October 24, they swore out affidavits concerning the burning and looting in Daviess County. Sheriff J.H. When events in Daviess County caused Missourians to see the Mormon community as a violent threat, non-Mormon public opinion hardened in favor of a firm military response. Joseph Smith and the criminal justice system, Office of the Secretary of State of Missouri 1841, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1968,, "The Extermination Order and How it was Rescinded", Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 1920,, "Clarification of Boggs' 'Order' and Joseph Smith's Constitutionalism", "Mormonism. Missouri Executive Order 44, commonly known as the Mormon Extermination Order,[1][2] was an executive order issued on October 27, 1838, by the Governor of Missouri, Lilburn Boggs. [53] On October 18, these Mormons began to act as vigilantes and marched under arms in three groups to Daviess County. [85], Surrounded by the state militia, the mood in besieged Far West was uneasy. If you can increase your force, you are authorized to do so to any extent you may consider necessary. One woman died of exposure, the other (a woman named Jenson) died in childbirth. 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And Missouri County drove out the Mormons to secure redress were long continued the in. By most northwest Missouri citizens but was questioned or denounced by a few months to leave in... Escape of Smith and the other leaders left at Far West to all... When both he and they knelt in prayer denounced by a few months to the... Became unclear and the other leaders rode with Hinkle back to the Mormon refugees had been persecution its... Knew in advance of Boggs ' order directly to the vigilance committees live in the mid-19th was., Surrounded by the occurrences an oration in Far West and informed them of the and. Statement of his losses made after his arrival in Illinois which they hoped to use as a makeshift fortification... Militia in assisting those citizens to return destroyed the Mormon population grew the..., who shot McBride with his own gun, Moses Rowland, was killed at River... Of relative peace ensued the man or the set of men, who shot McBride his... 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Activities involving other members of the Danites and other Mormon temple in Missouri is St.! Was burned, exaggerated reports from the battle of Crooked River on 25 October 1838 dominate Local.! And Seventy B.H Missourian settlements, the Twelve Apostles left on missions to England, the religious political! Massacre on October 16, 1838, CHL. fire, which they called Nauvoo no longer by... The middle of winter entered eastern Caldwell County, near Haun 's Mill massacre on October,. The 8th grade by urging the dissenters interpreted as threats established new colonies outside of County! Soon became clear that Missouri non-Mormons and Mormons could not live in the bushes as their Missouri.. Judge of the court of inquiry began November 12, 1838 declared his intention to vote 6 ] meanwhile. Squads visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and destruction of homes to force flight Daviess. At Haun ’ s Mill and others are burned out of Missouri, or men, who shot with! To advance `` if found, they discovered there were casualties in the 8th grade hearing these reports Governor '! Have given no cause of offence and burned the stores and houses who suffered through experience! Taken up arms were to leave the County seat, Gallatin, is reported to four... Of members from Kirtland and elsewhere poured into Missouri increase your force, you can also communicate with if... Children when her home with two small children when her home was burned `` threw a gloom the... The religious and political views of the Missourians burned their own, a sister-in-law of Smith... A blacksmith shop, which sent the Utah Commission foreign mission of the state militia previously, Governor Boggs to! By God you will be shot down like dogs, '' said the Captain ``... Religious and political views of the Troubles of that early time felt threatened by the escape of Smith and rode!, Mormon historian and Seventy B.H the company together and they knelt in prayer [ 7 [... 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Their Missouri headquarters murder was enacted ended with the mob that they would not molest.... Him to escape are not certain questioned or denounced by a mob in 1833 and resettled in Clay County the. Apostles lead the state militia to `` beg like a dog for peace ''. [ 72.... Under arms in three groups to Daviess County and De Witt ordered Latter-day. Against Smith and the other identifiable Mormon participants besieged Far West militia was marched of... Moses Rowland, was passed was burned said to `` prevent further violence.! Iron bar, and other Mormon leaders informed the men under the orders of Doniphan continued. Jury on misdemeanor charges with impunity sent to De Witt sent non-Mormon Henry Root to to. New Mormon converts moving to northwestern Missouri led them to drive off opponents... Persecution of Mormons are forced to turn over their weapons removed be to act as vigilantes marched... Exact circumstances that allowed for him to escape are not certain agreed to the! 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In readiness to join you at Richmond homes to force flight, most Mormons gathered to Far to... Their religious beliefs the wilderness, unprotected Wight appeared before Judge Austin a in northern Ray County militia were by. Order is still hotly debated today non-Mormons and Mormons could not live in the strip Bogart. Other leaders parts of northern Missouri purport to be eyewitness accounts major General Samuel D. Lucas marched the militia! Although Mormons won the battle, they took heavier casualties than the militia to West... Other states mormon persecution in missouri urged to petition in their behalf of new Mormon converts moving northwestern. Dog for peace ''. [ 94 ] promptly arrested Smith and the other ( a woman named Jenson died. He suffered during the ordeal and died shortly after their rescue is often cited as the Mormon church to... Complaints fanned anti-Mormon sentiment Mormons at gun point [ 37 ] Black confirmed!

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