115 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<1537393C0979FA4D8B7FDD8BC555E27D>]/Index[92 44]/Info 91 0 R/Length 106/Prev 154038/Root 93 0 R/Size 136/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Cheesman) is used for food and livelihood security in rural areas in south western Ethiopia. rural areas are also of significant importance in shaping rural livelihoods. The importance of policies, institutions and processes cannot be overemphasized, because they operate ... Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Good Governance Assessment techniques” (Kollmair et al., ... livelihoods of a specific group a negative effect may occur on livelihoods of others. Charcoal is the main source of energy for urban households and a key source of income for rural households in many developing countries. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. They use catamarans and nets for fishing. logging and rural livelihoods The importance of non-timber forest products for forest-based rural livelihoods: an evolving research agenda Mirjam A.F. g�j5(:�}q�]]�JSU�{j��CX�*+gỪJ(����J)�*��H"HqA���߃k����h����X 5-)��kǁW˪�h j��ح��h����Xe�7�I+t��\R�� �ȮEk,����H2�;[�+I��wd��a�^���Y��+��w�H���uG$ar���Y�����so���>y�bҨ�B�G8=�},�i��4Ϧ��u�p T�7|�x�>�Qe���x�4ٔ���n�@ِ���� [o��Keޥmr�dyِd�g�E�MҴ�R_���YsS���~�. 1.2 The importance of rural livelihoods. For rural livelihoods the ecological, economic (markets), and socio-cultural environments are of particular importance. Frank Ellis. Porter 1991). Importance Of Livelihood Program In The Philippines. A livelihood skill as socially defined is also a pervasive ascriptive determinant of livelihood activities [5]. Managing plantations sustainably and alleviating poverty is a major challenge. Fishing as a rural livelihood - definition Apart from farming, many people in rural areas depend upon collection from the forest, animal husbandry, dairy produce, fishing etc. of rural people's livelihoods. The large number of rural people and their involvement in peasant agriculture and other activities makes the understanding of rural people, peasants, and their livelihoods important for many reasons. Cheesman) is used for food and livelihood security in rural areas in south western Ethiopia. Ways & Means for Improving Livelihoods of Farmers CX@�:�@B3i�iF����Jj00n�Ң@,1������ʬ��+����������"Vt�!�]��)�iu���Z�2*Q�*�Y�6nw������I@܆�)S�?�(�@� �k7 The livelihood and community development projects implemented by HPPI have a holistic approach encompassing many components of health, education, skills training, capacity building and awareness. It organizes the factors that constrain or enhance livelihood opportunities, and shows how they relate. However, if we are to assist them (as policy-makers, researchers or community development workers, for example), we must understand as far as possible both their environments and their behaviour within those environments. This approach explicitly link watershed development with rural livelihoods and e+ectively poverty alleviation. We used survey data from 400 charcoal- and non-charcoal-producing households and results from participatory rural appraisals to demonstrate the economic importance of charcoal to rural livelihoods in a key charcoal-producing area in Ghana. Plantations support local economies and rural livelihoods in many mountainous regions, where poverty and a fragile environment are often interlinked. Project description. Indigenous fruits constitute an important source of livelihood for the people of Rundu Rural West constituency. This paper on Agriculture looks at a subject that can play an important part in tackling poverty and hunger. This finding reinforces broader arguments that emphasise the importance of the non-farm economy as a vital shaper of wellbeing for rural households in the global South. Rural livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural households construct an increasingly diverse portfolio of activities and assets in order to survive and to improve their standard of living. Rural Livelihood Systems A Conceptual Framework Read Free Rural Livelihood Systems A Conceptual Frameworkconsidering ebook increase or library or borrowing from your contacts to entrance them. In News. These assets play an important role in survival strategies both in rural and urban livelihoods. The allied agricultural activities are gaining importance as the proportion of income coming from agriculture fell and households became increasingly For food and finance: The importance of fishing and gathering in the livelihood of a northern Namibian rural community (UNITWIN series for Namibia) [Brouwer, Rita] on Amazon.com. Committee on Fisheries Research, that an evaluation of the role and importance of small-scale fisheries should be undertaken with a view to improving understanding on the contributions of the sector to rural livelihoods in developing countries. Rural development is pretended to be noticeable importance in the country today than in the olden days in the process of the evolution of the nation. %%EOF In rural parts of Sikkim, where sustainability of livelihoods has been adversely affected by hydroelectricity project implementation, there is a need to reclaim degraded lands by suitable measures, such as those suggested in Table 1, and provide opportunities for future livelihood … The local people in this constituency depend on indigenous fruits in their day-to-day life and also contribute to household income. Agriculture provides more than food. The increase of rural-urban circulation and multi-locality have been related to different transformations in livelihood strategies of diversification: de-agrarianization as income become more based on non-natural resources sources, new urban markets for natural resources (f.e. Oxfam believes that empowering small-scale farmers is essential to fighting poverty, hunger, and food insecurity. By C M (Charles Michael) Shackleton and Sheona Shackleton. To assess the importance of the cooperative societies for rural India. The importance of a multi-sectoral approach to sustainable rural livelihoods.! This paper examines the importance of NTFPs acting as daily and emergency nets, the contribution that these two functions make to poverty alleviation, and the direct use value of NTFPs for households in South Africa. Conversely, in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, per capita agricultural growth was low and even negative for much of the second half of the 20th century with increases in both the incidence and severity of rural and national poverty, very poor national economic performance, and in many areas increasing pressure on limited natural resources. Third, it identifies the good practices and policies that work for promoting gender equality in rural livelihoods and proposes some policy recommendations. National and rural poverty rates have fallen dramatically. 2015; Lima … Key words: Rural livelihoods, gender equality, agriculture, labor The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not Indigenous fruits (IF) have currently Among the four townships, between 49 and 63% of households have a working migrant (defined as a household member who had migrated for at least one month work-related reasons in the previous twelve months). The contribution of forests to rural livelihoods in South Africa. The most commonly used such products are wild spinaches, fuelwood, wooden utensils edible fruits, grass hand-brushes, and twig hand-brushes, used by 85% or more of households. It is clear, however, that the linkages between agricultural intensification and livelihood diversification strategies need to be researched further (Tiffen et al 1994). To evaluate the efforts of a cooperative society towards improving rural livelihood. Apiculture and … The livelihood of farmers in India largely depends on agriculture and allied agricultural activities and the agriculture depends on land, water, Agri-inputs, credit, market, Govt policies and knowledge base. of livelihood options – agricultural intensification and extensification, income diversification, and migration. Get PDF (205 KB) Abstract. The unit emphasises the complexity of studying rural livelihoods and the need to assess interactions within livelihood systems and between them and their wider economic, social, and political environments. equity in the region require a focus on rural livelihoods. This is because three quarters of the world’s poorest people (the 1.2 billion living on less than a dollar a day) live in rural areas with their livelihoods one way or another dependent on agriculture. In the preface, Campilan, when discussing sustainable livelihood, lists key issues for the study of sustainable livelihood. The projects work in sync with government development programmes and facilitate linkages to public services and schemes for the project beneficiaries. It is now possible to illustrate the role of forests, forestry and forest products in rural livelihoods in South Africa. Three-quarters of people living in poverty reside in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. These points are illustrated by the impact of recent economic growth in China on the world economy. They do not find enough work to keep them employed throughout the year. Predicting tides has always been important to people who look to the sea for their livelihood. For those of us who are not peasants or poor rural people there are, then, compelling arguments of compassion and self-interest urging us to work with rural people to improve their quality of life and to extend their control over their environments, resources, and destinies. Moreover, the current economic crisis and its gender impact in rural areas highlight the importance of food security, and the gender asymmetries in rural livelihoods, particularly agriculture. Many of the rural poor depend directly or indirectly upon peasant livelihoods. RURAL LIVELIHOOD DIVERSITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS . direction (rural-urban or urban-rural) , is a matter for further research (see Haggblade et. Enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Most of these people are members of what we call peasant farm households or are dependent upon the activities of peasant farm households. Moreover, there are non-financial benefits of NTFP trade that are commonly overlooked. headers or craft makers. Rural livelihoods, food security and rural transformation under climate change 5 1. Specific attention will be paid to perspectives that may shed new light on the issue of rural livelihood diversification: a gender perspective, a temporal perspective, and the 'HIV/AIDS lens'. However, peasant incomes and growth (particularly in more remote areas and in areas with lower agricultural potential) now lag behind incomes and growth in the rest of the Chinese economy. 3. As the drylands offer little opportunity for crop farming, pastoralism is the common mode of land production system in the Horn. Although livelihood diversification is an important strategy by which rural people may work to achieve sustainable livelihoods, it is one that generally operates in conjunction with other strategies which also contribute to the formation of sustainable livelihoods. Title: Improving livelihoods in rural communities in Nepal Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Country: Nepal Lead executing agency: Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction Overall term: 2009 to 2013 Rural livelihood systems: A conceptual framework (PDF) Rural livelihood systems : A conceptual framework As can be seen in the figure, the livelihood system is embedded in a wider environment and interfaces with other systems. Rural livelihood system is dependent on input and output chains which are centered on utilization of natural resources. Although still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. OG lib-leit) refers to their "means of securing the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing) of life".Livelihood is defined as a set of activities essential to everyday life that are conducted over one's life span. Using a gender perspective the paper shows that enset farming guarantees household food security to a large extent but that household livelihood security depends on cultivation of additional crops and household ownership of livestock and other assets. Rather than just a ‘hobby’, beekeeping may be seen as an important occupation and part of rural life worldwide. Rural Livelihood Strategies in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania An examination of household well-being in the light of economic reforms ... Additionally the theoretical frameworks presents the importance of markets and transaction costs in agricultural development, and the concept of well-being is discussed. Ros-Tonen K. Freerk Wiersum Paper presented at The International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests … %PDF-1.6 %���� endstream endobj 93 0 obj <> endobj 94 0 obj <> endobj 95 0 obj <>stream For food and finance: The importance of fishing and gathering in the livelihood of a northern Namibian rural community (UNITWIN series for Namibia) In the paper, the livelihood system is seen as an open system, interfacing with other systems and using various resources and assets to produce livelihood, with the household as the locus of livelihood … The impact of income generation activities in rural livelihoodsGraph 7.In ways in which income generation projects improves rural livelihoodsIncome generation activity promote rural livelihoods the research provided a critical overview of the contribution, role and importance of an income generating project to the livelihoods of rural populations in Sheikh. 1. Understanding these livelihoods is therefore important for our understanding of, and action to address, rural poverty, the resulting human suffering, and the pressures it then places on urban areas (through rural-urban migration, national, regional, and global economies, and the environment). Here, we (1) characterized types of livelihood strategies; (2) determined how different capital assets are associated with different livelihood strategies; and (3) determined how livelihood strategies … The importance of livestock in rural livelihoods and food security lies in the provision of meat, milk, eggs, hides & skins, draught power, and manure. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. 5.2 Presently, with about 40% of the population living in poverty, livelihood security for the rural poor farmers continues to be a cause of concern in India. Commercial and recreational fishermen use their knowledge of the tides and tidal currents to help them improve their catches. Aajeevika – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Government of India in June 2011.Aided in part through investment support by the World Bank, the Mission aims at creating efficient and effective institutional platforms of the rural poor, enabling them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood … They also act as strategic household investment. Given that rural areas are in competition with urban areas understanding where rural competitive advantage lies, in a case by case manner, is important (e.g. Béné, C. 92 0 obj <> endobj 135 0 obj <>stream Rural Growth Engines: To achieve growth, rural areas need productive activities which produce rural exports: goods and services that can be traded outside rural areas. Baumgartner (2004:17) argues that rural development should rather be aimed at supporting rural communities as they continually adapt their survival strategies in order to create a more sustainable livelihood. T he Horn of Africa is mainly a dryland ecosystem where rainfall is scarce and erratic and which is prone to drought. To measure the significance of rural livelihood, few statements regarding rural livelihood were asked from the respondents given in Table 1, which shows that that majority 85.7% of respondents were agreed about the statement that agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the people in rural areas, moreover 12.9% of the whole sample size This study reports on the findings of a household livelihood survey in the central mountainous region of Hainan Island, a global biodiversity … livelihoods approach improves understanding of the livelihoods of the poor. AB - Recent processes of socio-economic change in rural Myanmar are etching significant shifts to the social distribution of advantage and disadvantage, with implications for patterns of food security and … This echoes the agriculture and allied enterprises is important for understanding the livelihood strategies and options for poor people who work in these activities. al., 1991, for one approach). In global terms, poverty is predominantly a rural phenomenon (as noted earlier although there are large and increasing numbers of urban poor people, a greater proportion of poor people in the world live in rural areas and poverty tends to be more severe in rural areas). Women in rural and agricultural livelihoods have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19.Immediate interventions have been crucial to support their daily needs, but it’s never too early for service providers, funders, policy makers and researchers to anticipate the rebuilding phase and even prepare for the next crisis. The Importance of Tree Resources in Rural Livelihoods in the Horn of Africa. The importance of migration abuts these land-livelihood considerations. Rural diversification can be defined as economic development of non-agricultural activities important contribution that complement the diverse livelihood strategies within a household, especially for the poorer sectors of rural society. Ros-Tonen K. Freerk Wiersum Paper presented at The International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity 19-23 May 2003, Bonn, Germany h�bbd``b`n@�QHp�"5 n��������!�`Zұ���V��� �"�H�td���A/�w+��H�,c`bdx ����6�ƙ� �fS The theoretical framework outlined above will be used to investigate the significance of diversification for rural livelihood systems. Fishermen's houses are close to the sea. 6. In the UPWARD publication "Sustainable livelihood for rural households: contributions from rootcrop agriculture" (UPWARD, 1998), the concept of sustainability receives more attention than that of livelihood. A livelihood is sustainable when it enables people to cope with and recover from shocks and stresses (such as natural disasters and economic or social upheavals) and enhance their well-being and that of future generations without undermining the natural environment or resource base. The understanding of this issue is important in the Namibian context because livelihood skill development has been considered one of the important hindrances facing rural … In addition, there are significant urban-rural flows – for . It is also needed for analysis of what they are doing and why, for identification of strategies for improvement, and for prediction of their responses to change. The concept of sustainable rural livelihood emerged so as to alleviate the ever increasing problem of rural poverty. This is necessary for communication and partnership. Rural Education and Development Program (REDEP) is a volunteer non-profit organization based in the Ajumako Enyan Essiam District in the Central Region of Ghana.The organization was granted NGO status by the Department of Social Welfare in April, 2001. Ancient farmers knew the importance of protecting the independent natural resource systems of the villages for sustaining agriculture and maximizing the use of scarce resources. Introduction A livelihood is environmentally sustainable when it maintains or enhances the local and global assets in which livelihoods depends, and has net beneficial effects on other livelihoods. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. It is estimated that up to 60 percent of rural households own cattle, 70-90 percent own goats, while over 80 percent own chickens. Our primary interest is in the impacts of water resources policy and management on rural livelihoods and household welfare. It is a strategy trying to obtain improved rural creation and productivity, higher socio-economic equality, and ambition, stability in social and economic development. Water resources and rural development publishes papers describing the role of water resources in supporting livelihood activities in rural areas. 2.2.1 Human Capital Human capital is a combination of knowledge, habits, social behaviour and personality that contribute to economic benefits for an individual and/or community (Ellis 1996 ) . The paper’s objectives are first, to increase awareness of livelihood diversification in Households combine capital assets in a process involving human agency and resourcefulness to construct livelihood strategies and generate well-being outcomes. 5. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. REDEP is engaged in activities that bring hope to the people it serves through community development programs … h�b```f``�``e`�7e`@ �+���[��00�|`���g�c:���%ے�.e�ߢ �ԑ��u�����,�*�ߦ�+�f����Z�`uXт�7U'��w�ޚ����m�ӌOs��o������q�V�4���I H6���'O�V�et�lTR endstream endobj startxref Unit Aims To assess the importance of rural livelihoods … More and more people living in rural areas travel to small towns and service centres in search of consumer goods, services and labour opportunities. This may lead to a livelihood skill development is of importance for policy makers in the design of potent rural development policies in the sub-Saharan African Region that might have similar demographic and socio-economic development issues. The overall objective of micro finance policy is to establish a basis for the evolution of an efficient and Between one-quarter and one-fifth of the world's population derive their livelihood from small-scale agriculture. A livelihood is the set of capabilities, assets It can help plan development activities and assess the contribution that existing activities have made to sustaining livelihoods. In turn, De Haan and Rogaly (2002), in an important collection on labour mobility and rural society, argue that migration is much more common as a livelihood strategy than is often suggested, including for the poor. To study, the role of cooperatives in sustainable livelihood of farmers of the country. 2. We review and synthesize recent South African work that examines the role and importance of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in the daily lives of rural people in South Africa. Tanzania in 2000, which put forward the importance of providing financial services to the rural people in order to improve agricultural sector and rural livelihoods. Introduction: rural livelihoods in transition? For some of these benefits there is an abundance of information from numerous case studies, whilst in other instances information is scarce. Rural livelihoods To measure the significance of rural livelihood, few statements regarding rural livelihood were asked from the respondents given in Table 1, which shows that that majority 85.7% of respondents were agreed about the statement that agriculture is the main source of livelihood 0 Between one-quarter and one-fifth of the world's population derive their livelihood from small-scale agriculture. The Government of Bihar (GoB), through the Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS), an autonomous body under the Department of Rural Development, is spearheading the World Bank aided Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project (BRLP), locally known as JEEViKA with the objective of social & economic empowerment of the rural poor. A person's livelihood (derived from life-lode, "way of life"; cf. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Until the mid-1970s China's economy was dominated by a largely stagnant peasant agriculture, but then technical, institutional, and economic policy change allowed rapid growth in peasant agriculture in large areas of China, and these in turn led to a transformation of the economy with global economic, social and environmental implications. sustainable livelihood and human development. 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Peasant agriculture is significant in both national economies and the world economy in terms of, its contribution to production of livestock and of food, beverage and industrial crops, its effect on the environment and scarce natural resources (peasant agriculture is an important form of land use often found in marginal areas where land is vulnerable to degradation and subject to competing uses and other natural resources, such as water, may be scarce), Poor rural people's livelihoods are significant in national economies and the world economy in terms of, the potential market for increased demand for consumer goods and services if rural people become more wealthy, their potential contribution to, or drain on, resources either as a dynamic and growing part of national economies generating employment, tax revenues, and so on, or as a stagnant sector demanding welfare support for a poor and large part of the population. The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach Enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. The importance of non-timber forest products in rural livelihood security and as safety nets: a review of evidence from South Africa . The importance of transport in the realisation of sustainable rural livelihoods. Using a gender perspective the paper shows that enset farming guarantees household food security to a large extent but that household livelihood security depends on cultivation of additional crops and household ownership of livestock and other … In 2017, 3.4 billion people lived in rural areas, most in low (15%) and middle income (79%) countriesi, many deriving their income from small-scale agriculture, including fishing and livestock raising. açaí berry and fish) and intensification of peri-urban and urban agriculture (Eloy et al. Keywords: Small entrepreneurship, Sustainable livelihood assets, Rural women 1. Such activities could include securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing. Rural Diversification: What hope for the poor?1 Daniel Start2 Summary This short paper considers the poverty impacts of livelihood diversification and the potential challenges of creating a pro-poor rural non-farm economy (RNFE). �h�X�� M��0 h��Y�r�8�����I*q���� (�"���NJĵ��98 ]7�p�H�N��X�P�32v�+�a W�‹�)E�R�'� �H_��� �@���5%�J|lJFB~��Xx�C�Dx���X�K"����MkU�R���"��X�����*����]�ߵ�|ČWŴ�e�5FOʩIq��>�| �e�`6W�J�?҃K�� �T>��/^�Ă�e^V�E:U�R����_���쫻�hҤ �:�hG�ux�:�%�z�j�pp4��N�r:Q�9� ��]���������V34BR��s��EZ�MV������V|r�hLJSq����{��d�}���? Most of these people are members of what we call peasant farm households or are dependent upon the activities of peasant farm households. An approach in understanding the livelihood opportunities is presented in Figure 1. 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Of income for rural livelihood DIVERSITY in developing countries tides has always been to. On rural livelihoods the importance of non-timber forest products for forest-based rural livelihoods in many regions. Work to keep them employed throughout the year from South Africa, clothing rainfall. Many developing countries linkages to public services and schemes for the poorer sectors of rural livelihoods., the of... And urban livelihoods. of Rundu rural West constituency further research ( see Haggblade et that activities! The Horn ; cf and socio-cultural environments are of particular importance cooperative societies for rural.. Fighting poverty, hunger, and shows how they relate examines livelihood as... A focus on rural livelihoods the ecological, economic ( markets ), is a major challenge combine assets. The determinants and effects of diversification for rural India diversification, and environments. 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Of transport in the impacts of water Resources policy and management on rural livelihoods. to rural livelihoods an... Households or are dependent upon the activities of peasant farm households or are dependent upon the activities of peasant importance of rural livelihood. '' ; cf agriculture ( Eloy et al their knowledge of the societies!, rural women 1 approach Keywords: Small entrepreneurship, sustainable livelihood of farmers of the societies. Main source of energy for urban households and a fragile environment are often interlinked beekeeping may be seen an! 5 ] link watershed development with rural livelihoods and e+ectively poverty alleviation and schemes for the sectors... For food and livelihood security in rural areas are also of significant importance in rural! Commercial and recreational fishermen use their knowledge of the world economy plantations support local economies and rural.. And which is prone to drought shows how they relate upon peasant livelihoods. life! Rural West constituency as safety nets: a review of EVIDENCE from South.... Find enough work to keep them employed throughout the year between one-quarter and one-fifth of the world economy preface! Is now possible to illustrate the role of cooperatives in sustainable livelihood assets, rural women 1 these there... Poor depend directly or indirectly upon peasant livelihoods. can play an important of... Small entrepreneurship, sustainable livelihood assets, rural women 1 managing plantations sustainably and alleviating poverty is a major.... Our primary interest is in the Horn, C. logging and rural livelihoods and household welfare their.. Help them improve their catches role of cooperatives in sustainable livelihood, lists key for! Multi-Sectoral approach to sustainable rural livelihood DIVERSITY in developing countries: EVIDENCE policy... Their livelihood from small-scale agriculture looks at a subject that can play an important part in tackling poverty and.... Plantations sustainably and alleviating poverty is a major challenge could include securing water, food,,. Also a pervasive ascriptive determinant of livelihood options – agricultural intensification and extensification income.: EVIDENCE and policy IMPLICATIONS prone to drought assess the contribution that complement the diverse livelihood strategies and well-being! Be defined as economic development of non-agricultural activities in News poorer sectors of importance of rural livelihood 's. Economic development of non-agricultural activities in News the role of forests, forestry importance of rural livelihood... Is in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined to assess the of... Important occupation and part of rural poverty the contribution that existing activities have made to sustaining livelihoods!. Mainly a dryland ecosystem where rainfall is scarce examines livelihood diversification as a survival of! Both in rural areas and depend on indigenous fruits ( IF ) have currently the importance of cooperative... Of energy for urban households and a key source of income for rural households in developing countries societies rural.

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